There are many different Psychotherapy schools of thought and methods. You will find a helpful resumé on the home page of Counselling In France here. A psychotherapist is trained in three complementary areas: theory, practice, and self-work, in order help people with personal / relational / psychological difficulties. A psychiatrist is a medical doctor specialising in mental illness, and is authorised to prescribe medication. Consultations are reimbursed by Social Security. A psychologist is university-trained in psychological and behavioural theories and is qualified to do personality tests. A psychoanalyst listens to the unconscious of the person, focussing on the transference in the patient – therapist relationship. The four professions do not exclude one another, as a psychologist may also be trained in psychotherapy (but this is not included in the university curriculum) and a psychiatrist may also be a psychoanalyst.